Flame Retardants Materials

Entekno are producing Al(OH)3(ATH) flame retardants having 25 µm particle size and 98% whiteness. Entekno have also been making research to develop ATH flame retardants having 1 µm or less particle size.

Flame Retardants

What is a Flame Retardant?

There are two elements of a burning reaction:
Reducing agent
Oxidizing agent

The oxidizing agent is generally oxygen in air. Burning process starts when the polymeric material reaches to a heat at which the polymeric bonds starts to break down. When the polymeric bonds break down the flammable gases in the material rise to the air and forms the environment having the burning potential. When this gas mixture finds enough energy to activate the burning will start.

At the table shown below the maximum working and decomposition temperature of various polymers are shown. The decomposition temperature is at which the polymeric bonds are breaking down and flammable gases spread to the enviroment.

POLYMERMaximum Working Temperature (°C)Decomposition Temperature (°C)
Nylon 6105300-350

The Flame Retardance Mechanisms

Flame retardants either prevent or stop the burning process. This can be accomplished with two different mechanisms:

  • Physical
  • Chemical

Physical Prevention

In this mechanism the flame reatardant material spends the heat occurring at the burning potential area. Flame retardants use the heat occurring in te enviroment and therefore decreases the heat of enviroment. In this category aluminium trihydroxide and magnesium hydroxide are the choices. These materials reveal water vapour at temperatures of 200°C to 300 °C, the reaction that produces water vapour is endothermic therefore uses the heat energy that occurs in the burning enviroment.

2Al(OH)3 → Al2O3 + 3H2O

The revealed water vapour decreases the concentration of the fuel in the burning zone and hinders the propagation of the flame.

Chemical Prevention

This type of flame retardants change the chemistry of the burning process. The flame retardants expose Cl and Br type radicals in gas form and these gaseous products react with H and OH and renders them inaffective for burning. Also the additives such as clay results to ash formation which hinders the propagation of the flame.

The Applications where Flame Retardants are used

  • Automotive
  • Electronics
  • Transportation

Automotive Field

Electrical hardware: PP, PE, PBT, PA, PVC

Seats: PU, PP, PVC, ABS, PA, Polyether, Polyester

Car bumper: PP, ABC, PC/PBT


Door handles: ABS, PA, PBT, POM, ASA, PP

Liquid reservoirs : PP, PA, PE

Electronic Field

Cables and wires: PVC, XLPE, PP


Circuits: Epoxy resin

Jack inputs: PBT, PET, PA6, PA66,HTN

Transportation (Bus)

Electrical hardware: PP, PE, PBT, PA, PVC

Accessories: ABS, PA, PBT, POM, ASA, PP


Seats: PU, PP, PVC, ABS, PA, Polyether, Polyester

Bumpers : PP, ABC, PC/PBT

Liquid reservoirs: PP, PA, PE

Transportation (Airplane)

Electrical hardware: PP, PE, PBT, PA, PVC

Seats ve top panels: PU, PP, PVC, ABS, PA, Polyether, Polyester

Plastic ComponentPlastic Type
Cable and WirePVC, XLPE, PP
Oil systemHDPE, POM, PA, PP, PBT
Electrical HardwarePP, PE, PBT, POM, ASA, PP
LighteningPC, PBT, ABS, PMMA, UP
Liquid ReservoirsPP, PE, PA
SeatsPU, PP, PVC, ABS, PA, Poliether, Poliyester
Decorative Parts (inside the car)PP, ABS, PET, POM, PVC
Decorative Parts (outside the car)ABS, PA, PBT, POM, ASA, PP

The Statistics for the Deaths Caused by Fires

The below statistics made in England show the main places where casualities occurred at fires.

The Statistics for the Reasons of Death at Fires 

The biggest reason of deaths occurred at England statistically happened due to toxic fumes occurred during a fire.