Nanomaterials

The first mention of purposely created and applied technology and means, which were subsequently termed nanotechnology, is usually connected with the well-known lecture Mr. R. Feynman, the professor of Californian ins. of tech., delivered in 1959 at the session of the American Physical Society. In this lecture called ‘There is a lot of space down there’ for the first time the possibility to create nanosized products with the use of atoms as building particles was considered.

The word ‘nanotechnology’ was introduced for the first time into the scientific world by N. Taniguchi at the international conference on industrial production in Tokyo in 1974.

Ideas of nanotechnological strategy, which were put forward by Feynman, were developed by E. Drexler in his book ‘Vehicles of creation: the arrival of the nanotechnology era’ published in 1986.

In the second half of 1980s to the early 1990s a number of important discoveries and inventions were made, which created an essential impact on the further development of nanotechnology. The first invention that used nanotechnology is Scanning Tunneling Microscope by IBM company. The unstoppable rise of nanotechnology has begun in line with all these developments.

Nice outlining of the historical development of nanotechnology was given a working link.

http://www.foresight.org/nano/history.html

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Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science and engineering.

It’s hard to imagine just how small nanotechnology is. One nanometer is a billionth of a meter, or 10-9 of a meter. Here is a examples:

A sheet of newspaper is about 100,000 nanometers thick

Nano-sized materials are of great interest nowadays because of the ability to see and control individual atoms and molecules. Nano-sized powder of inorganic materials by controlling the particle size and shape are developed by Entekno researches’.

Production Methods of Nanomaterials

Nano-powder material to produce many high-tech production method and these production methods are below;

  • Hydrothermal method
  • Sol-gel method
  • Controlled precipitation method
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Hydrothermal synthesis includes the various techniques of crystallizing substances from high-temperature aqueous solutions at high vapor pressures; also termed “hydrothermal method”. The term “hydrothermal” is of geological origin. The hydrothermal method for nanostructure synthesis is of considerable interest for practical applications since it is a low cost, environmentally friendly technique which can be used on large area and/or flexible substrates, as well as fabrication of free standing nanostructures.

A sol is a colloidal (the dispersed phase is so small that gravitational forces do not exist; only Van der Waals forces and surface charges are present) or molecular suspension of solid particles of ions in a solvent. A gel is a semi-rigid mass that forms when the solvent from the sol begins to evaporate and the particles or ions left behind begin to join together in a continuous network. The sol-gel process is a wet-chemical technique that uses either a chemical solution or colloidal particles to produce an integrated network (gel).

Reactions involve the simultaneous occurrence of nucleation, growth, coarsening and/or agglomeration processes by using of solubility diagrams.

Characterization of Nanomaterials

Nanomaterials are characterized by many different methods. The process of characterization of nanomaterials are discussed in terms of five main feature by Entekno researcher’s. All characterization operations are carried out by our expert staff.

PROPERTIESCHARACTERIZATION METHODS
Particle shape and sizeScanning electron microscopy (SEM)
Zeta-Sizer
Specific surface area and pore volume distributionBrauner, Emmet and Teller method (BET)
Chemical purityX-ray fluorescence (XRF)
Atomic adsorption spectroscopy (AAS)
Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)
Crystal structureX-ray diffraction method (XRD)
Particle surface propertiesFourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR)
Measurement of Zeta potential

Application of Nanomaterials

Nanomaterials are at the leading edge of the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology. Their unique size-dependent properties make these materials superior and indispensable in many areas of human activity. Nanoparticles are used, or being evaluated for use, in many fields.

Technological tools are getting smaller and technologically advanced day by day thanks to the developments in nanotechnology. Scientific research on nanoparticles is intense as they have many potential applications in medicine, optics, electronics, textile, ceramic, glass, food etc. For example, today the textile industry has more than one technique of developing self-cleaning textiles. With the help of nanotechnology and multipurpose chemical finishes it is possible to design self-cleaning clothes.

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